Types of Beams, Shear Force & Bending Moment Diagram

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When a beam is subjected to uneven load, beam undergoes bending producing bending moment which in turn produces stresses within the beam. Therefore, it is necessary to calculate the bending moment and shear stress developing within the beam when subjected to any type of load.

A beam is a horizontal member of a structure, which distributes the overall load of the building. Different types of beams are:

  • Simply supported beam
  • Fixed beam
  • Over hanging beam
  • Double overhanging beam
  • Continuous beam
  • Cantilever beam
  • Trussed beam

Different types of loads which might come into action are:

  • Dead load
  • Live load
  • Wind load
  • Snow load
  • Earthquake load
  • Thermal load
  • Settlement load
  • Dynamic load

Preparing Bending Moment Diagrams (BMD) and Shear Force Diagram (SFD), gives idea about the internal stresses and bending developed in structure to counter the deformation due to loading. Hence, while designing a beam of concrete we find the points of maximum SFD and BMD values. These values in turn give us the idea as to the kind of material and geometry we need to provide to resist deformation or failure in general.

The Video uploaded by Learn Engineering, explain the calculation of BMD & SFD along with detailed procedure for preparing their diagrams.

types of beams


Calculate Construction Material using Online Calculators and Designers

For any construction project, small or big, it is necessary to make initial rough estimations. Designing, calculations and estimations are to be done to know the overall budget of the project. These calculations take the maximum amount of time of the designer or the construction contractor.

To make things easier, faster and efficient, there is nowadays an option of online calculators and designers. These applications make instant cost estimations for different types of construction materials required in a construction project. All that is required is the rough data like some dimensions, some specifications and some parameters, and these software calculates the type and amount of materials required, the cost estimation and the design/ layout of the project.

Calculate Construction Material using Online Calculators and Designers

These free online services provide 45 different types of calculations. Materials for construction of pitched or mansard roofs such as rafters can be estimated. Depending upon the no. of turns, angle of rotation, span and type of staircase, a layout of stairs can be generated with the amount of material required. Concrete amount, shapes and rings can be calculated and designed using this software.

Even for building the most basic structures like walls, floor and fences of any construction project, estimation for the materials can be calculated using these online calculators. Amount of cement, concrete, gravel, accessories, tiles, plasterboard can be found depending upon the requirement. Calculations can be also be done for the excavation works.

All the calculations can be done by just entering the dimensions and parameters, extracting designs, material and cost estimations using the online calculators and designers.

Roof Calculators STAIRS Wooden Calculator
Calculation of the rafters Calculation of the stairs
Calculation of roofing materials for pitched roofs Calculation of the stairs with a 90°
Calculation of roofing materials for single-pitch roof Calculation of the stairs with a pivoting steps of 90°
Calculation of roofing materials for the mansard roof Calculation of the stairs with a rotation of 180 degrees
Calculation of the stairs with a 180-degree swivel and rotary stages
Concrete Product Calculators Calculation of ladders with three spans and smooth landings
Calculation of straight stairs from concrete Calculation of ladders for three missions and Rotary stages
Calculation of the material strip foundation Calculating the size of a spiral staircase
Calculation of the amount of material affect the Foundation
Calculation of the base plate material Building and Construction materials Calculators
Calculation of concrete rings Calculation of the amount of cement, sand and gravel for making concrete
Calculate the number of paving tiles Calculation of the volume of sawn
Calculator accessories
Fences, Walls and Floor Calcualtor Calculation of ceramic tiles
Calculation of the amount of material the House of round logs Calculation of plasterboard for walls, walls, ceilings
The calculation of the amount of material for exterior walls
Calculation of building materials for the fence Earthworks Calculartor
Calculation of brick fence Lot of complex shapes
Arch for fences Calculation of earthwork excavation for
Calculation of building materials for the floor Calculation of the well
Calculation of floor filling materials Calculation of the volume of the trench
Calculation of the canopy over the entrance Calculation of a rolled lawn
Calculation of materials for construction of swimming pools

Tips to Building Strong Foundation Design

Building Foundation is the most important step of any construction project. Foundation of any building is under the plinth level up to the soil level. Pouring strong foundation which can support the load of the complete structure and can transfer it to the ground, requires proper designing and civil knowledge.

Here are some useful construction tips for building strong foundations.

  • The soil on which the structure is to be built should be strong. The building foundation should be continuous.
  • The soil under the foundation should be dry. If the foundation is built on waterlogged soil then this may lead to liquefaction and sinking of structure into the ground in case of earthquake.
  • Different factors affect the depth of foundation such as: bearing capacity, shrinkage and swelling of the ground due to seasonal changes, depth of frost penetration, excavation allowance, ground water table, etc. Considering these factors, the minimum depth of foundation should be 1.5 m.
  • Rounded and unbroken stones should not be used for building foundation, only broken stone can create strong foundations.
  • Sufficient mortar should be used to join stones. If need may be, reinforcements can be used to enhance the overall strength of the structure.

Footing is the structure beneath the base of the wall or column which distributes the load to the wider area of foundation. The minimum width of footing for one brick wall is considered to be 75 cm and for 1m for one and half brick wall.

Building Foundation


Preparing Bar Bending Schedule Sheets using Bar-Be-Que Software

Bar Bending Schedule is the sheet containing all the information for the bars to be used for RCC, such as length, diameter, bending angle, thickness, type, location and number of bars. It contains the detailed drawing of each element.

Creating BBS is an extremely rigorous and time consuming process. Precision is important. Also steel bars are expensive and hence to save the cost overrun, knowing exact number of bars required plays a vital role. BBS should be prepared following the codes of BS or IS depending upon the requirements.

Preparing Bar Bending Schedule Sheets using Bar-Be-Que Software

To make the process easier and faster, a software called Bar-Be-Que should be used. It is totally independent with already fed formula and principles. All that is needed is to enter the specifications, and the software comes up with precise salable graphical sketch for all the bars. Bar-Be-Que also comes up quality estimation reducing the cost over runs.

The Bar Bending Schedule sheets for reinforcement steel which are prepared by Bar-Be-Que can be printed directly.

Download BarBeQue software for BBS and quantity & quality estimation for reinforcement steel at ensoftindia.com


Know more about Shallow Foundation Types

Rather than going deep into the ground, Shallow foundation transfers the load of the structure nearer to the surface. This type of foundation is used where digging deep into the ground is not feasible and the structure in not very large. However, the soil on which the foundation is build should have bearing capacity and not be collapsible types. The depth of shallow foundation is less than its width.

Further categorisation based on patter, type of loading and site condition, for Shallow Foundation are:

  1. Strip Footing:

This footing has maximal length and minimal breadth, as can be deducted from its name, Strip footing. This type of footing is used to support the entire length of a long wall. Also when the spacing between the adjacent columns is very less, strip footing is used as a cost effective alternative.

  1. Spread Footing:

Spread footing or Isolated footing distribute the load of the column or wall through wider area. It can be either rectangular, circular, stepped or slopped to disperse the load to larger area.

  1. Combined Footing:

When the distance between two columns is less, such the two separate spread footing will overlay, Combined footing is build. This is done to distribute the load of two columns equally through the footing and also economical. Combined footing could be rectangular or trapezoidal in plan.

  1. Strap Footing:

Also known as Cantilever footing, it combines two isolated spread footings using a flexible strap of cantilever beam which is not in contact with soil. The rigid strap transfers the load to the soil with equal and uniform soil pressure under the footings of both the columns. It is cost-effective.

  1. Mat Footing:

This footing covers the entire area, like a floor, with thick reinforced concrete slab like a mat or raft, hence the name. Mat footing is helpful when tolerable soil pressure is low. Also if the adjacent columns and walls are closer, individual spread footing is not possible, then Mat footing is economical.

Shallow Foundations Type

Image source: designarchitectureart.com


Fiber Reinforced Concrete types and categories

To make concrete more powerful and more adaptable to extreme temperature, different types of fibers are blended with liquid cement to form the fiber-reinforced concrete structures. Another advantage of using fiber-reinforced concrete is that it is extremely water-tight. There are four different of fiber reinforcements, namely steel fiber, glass fiber, synthetic fiber and natural fiber.

Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete – It is an inexpensive and easily applicable form of concrete reinforcement. To enhance the longevity of concrete, steel bars are placed inside the liquid cement to give rebar reinforced concrete. It consists of thin steel wires combined with cement which gives superior structural strength to concrete along with safeguarding it against severe temperatures and diminishing the chances of cracking.

Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete – The reinforcement here is fiberglass. It increases the strength of the concrete and also insulates it. Just like steel reinforcement concrete, glass fiber reinforced concrete prevents cracking due to mechanical and thermal stresses. Glass fiber does not intervene with radio signals.

Fibre Reinforced Concrete types and categories

Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Concrete – Plastic and nylon fibers are combined to make robust reinforced concrete. Having an edge over the other fiber reinforcements, it disallows the cement to be stuck in the pipelines hence increasing the pump-ability of the cement. Synthetic fibers don’t expand or contract due to change in temperature and this helps to stop cracking. Concrete reinforced with synthetic fibers doesn’t break or collapse due to impact or fire.

Natural Fiber Reinforced Concrete – Natural fibers are hay or hair which are traditionally used to build natural fiber reinforced concrete. These fibers may provide strength for the time being, but does the reverse if used for long time projects. Natural fibers carry the risk of decaying which may result in concrete collapsing from inside. Hence, these fibers are not used nowadays.


Different types of footings for a Building Construction

Foundation is the basis for any building. A stronger the foundation, more durable the building. Depending on the ground type, height and shape of the building and its predicted load, type of foundation can be chosen.

Wall Footing –

Being a component of shallow foundation, Wall Footing serves to distribute the weight of a load-bearing wall across the area of the ground. Also known as Strip Footing, it is a continuous strip of reinforced concrete.

Spread Footing –

As the name suggests, Spread Footing is wider and more spread at the bottom facilitating distribution of load over a larger area. As the weight is diffused equally over the whole building area instead of some points, it minimizes the chances of cracking. Hence it operates under the least possibility of failure.

Stepped or Pedestal Footing –

With the aim of keeping the metal columns away from direct contact with soil in order to save it from corrosion, Pedestal Footing are built to bear the load of metal columns and take this load to the ground below.

Different types of footing

Sloped Footing–

Footings having sloping top or side faces is referred to Sloped Footing. It is helpful in form work construction.

Combined Footing –

When the distance between two adjacent columns is narrow enough for a single footing to be used as a support, then Combined Footing is used.  The preferred footing shape is trapezoidal or rectangular, based on the loads. Combined footing is a type of spread footing.

There are other types of foundations such as Mat footing, Strap footing, Pile footing and Drilled bell pier. Type of footing can be chosen based on the requirement.


How to make Spreadsheet for Civil Engineering Calculations

Civil Engineering involves designing and construction of structures and their maintenance. Designing of civil structures is typical and the calculations are rigorous. Use of spreadsheets facilitate the engineers to carry out these tasks efficiently with verification.

Different elements of civil engineering are computation of blast pressure on the basis of TNT value, sleeper design, combined footing design, vertical vessel octagonal foundation design, horizontal vessel foundation design, base plate design, isolated foundation design, design of two-way slab according to ACI, design of pipeline anchor block,design of Beam according to ACI.

Civil engineering spreadsheets are automated sheet designed such that it has pre-fed formula which make calculations easier and faster. They can be used for calculating loads, design civil structures and make other calculations.

Building civil engineering calculations spreadsheet

Download the step-by-step PDF guide showing how to build spreadsheet for civil engineering calculations.


Learn How to Estimate Construction Labor Cost

Once the construction is completed, what is there before us is the raw structure which needs beautification. Learn how to do construction labor cost estimate. Plastering and colouring is the next step towards the completing of a project.

Plasterwork refers to the adornment done with plaster, such as a layer of plaster on an interior or exterior wall structure, or plaster decorative mouldings on ceilings or walls which gives the final touch of completion to the structure. And the colouring is done once plasterwork is finished to add colours to the place.

Now this plastering and colouring work requires labour and estimate has to be made to get the overall expense. To calculate the expense, first the overall area needs to be calculated. The labour rate has to be fixed. The time required of the plasterwork has to be estimated. And finally the overall cost estimate of painting and plasterwork labour is found.

The video here, by Civil Engineering Academy, exclusive explains with an example, an elaborate procedure to estimate the labour for painting and plastering.

Just go through the video once, and you get a perfect idea about the procedure.

Learn How to Estimate Construction Labor Cost


Engineering Drawing – Essential of Civil Engineering

An engineering drawing, a type of technical drawing, is used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items. Engineering drawing (the activity) produces engineering drawings (the documents). The process of producing engineering drawings, and the skill of producing those, is often referred to as technical drawing or drafting.

More than merely the drawing of pictures, it is also a language — a graphical language that communicates ideas and information from one mind to another.

For contractors or civil engineers, architects and designers, engineering drawing is the main media to convey and understand the layout of building, objects, etc. Reading from a drawing gives the clear idea about the requirements of the project. The shapes, dimensions, centre and details of the drawing pretty explains everything about the object. Engineering drawing can be a 2D or 3D representation, however, a 3D presentation is much easier to understand and is descriptive itself.

The video here, is the introduction to the engineering drawing, showing the importance of the subject and its uses in the real life. The video also emphasize on the instruments used in the engineering drawing, their uses and their specific Importance.

It also explains the types of lines and their significance in the engineering drawing. The video pretty much gives enough basic knowledge to anyone who goes through the whole video once.

Go through the video introduction about engineering drawing:

What is Engineering Drawing