The wall designed and built for the purpose of holding back the earth of or soil on a sloppy terrain is called Retaining wall. When there is a change in elevation of ground level, the soil tends to move downwards if the angle of repose exceeds, leading to landslide. To prevent such this unfortunate event, Retaining wall is built at the edge.
Different types of Retaining walls are:
1. Gravity walls:
These are dense walls made up of concrete, stone or brick masonry. Due to their heavy weight, they are able to hold material behind and retain against failure. These wall are thick and suitable for height upto 3m. Geometry of these walls keep them stable.
2. Cantilevered walls:
Cantilever beams are made of reinforced concrete. Steel bars are cast in concrete and the shape of the wall resembles inverted T. This type of wall uses much less material and are economical. Cantilever walls are sometimes buttressed.
3. Sheet piling:
If the soil is soft and the space is tight, the Sheet Piling retaining walls are built. These are made up of steel, vinyl or wooden plank which are installed in the ground.
4. Bored pile:
Bored piles are assembled in a sequence, making Bored Pile retaining wall and the excess soil is excavated out. This type of retaining wall may also include a series of earth anchors or reinforcing beams, depending upon the project.
Any of the above retaining walls are when additionally strengthened by using cables or other stays anchored in the rock or soil behind it, then it is call Anchored retaining wall. This type of wall is preferred when high loads are expected.